Satoshi Nakamoto started the Bitcoin project in January 2009,proving the world that a peer-to-peer electronic cash system is feasible and secure. As a result,more people are now using the underlying blockchain?technology to solve problems in various industries.
This paper outlines how UOC, which inherits the underlying blockchain technology of bitcoin, and its revolutionary Specified Range Trusted Random Number Generator (SRTRNG) can help developers efficiently process transactions in nonfinancial spheres, such as?online games.
To achieve our goal,three basic techniques:Polymerized?Smart Contract (PSC),Self-Certified Storage?Chain (SCSC)?and Proof-of-Game (PoG)?are proposed.And they can be respectively used in teh field of?blockchain technology,computer technology?and?mathematical theory.
1. On the original meaning of the transactions
It is important for us to define the word ?Transaction??accurately. Satoshi Nakamoto knew that so he defined it meticulously in his Bitcoin paper. If defined ambiguously, it will cause enormous difference in practice.
The description of the word transactions in many bitcoin-related documents(especially the Chinese translation)?is?interpreted as an exchange,which UOC believes is?inaccurate or even?ambiguous.
UOC believes that transaction processing?or transfer?in the financial context is more appropriate than exchange.
For example, in the banking system, a request of moving X dollar?from account A to account B is a transfer instead of an exchange. An exchange, rather, means that A and B form an agreement and then one renders a service to another.
The following is the definition of transactions from the Bitcoin paper, which helps us to understand the difference between an exchange and a transfer.
Transactions：We define an electronic coin as a chain of digital signatures. Each owner transfers the coin?to the next by digitally signing a hash of the previous transaction and the public key of the next owner and adding these to the end of the coin. A payee can verify the signatures to verify the chain of ownership.
Apparently, the Bitcoin paper is mean to describe?the ownership of digital assets.?
Script?transaction processing has been implemented in the blockchain of bitcoin,but Satoshi Nakamoto has not defined it in his paper.?
It was not until the description and comparison of its equivalent functions appeared in ?Ethereum?that the concept of ?smart contracts became widely known in?the blockchain world.
Bitcoin scripts,like those of Ethereum smart contracts. Are designed to address more complex transfer requirements, such as executing something when a certain requirement is met, or even involving more than two parties in a transaction.
These settings provide transaction processing with unlimited possibilities.
Bitcoin scripts and Ethereum smart contracts are the same in terms of basic functions. We agree with Ethereum’s opinions on the disadvantages of Bitcoin scripts, including a lack of Turing-completeness, value-blindness, a lack of state, and blockchain-blindness.
However, UOC thinks that it is unnecessary to improve Bitcoin scripts. In other words, risks exist in Ethereum smart contracts.In other words,there are some risks in the improvement direction of Ethereum smart contracts.?
All Bitcoin’s transactions are built from outside, including scripts transaction, however, Ethereum’s transactions can be built from inside. The latter approach brings substantial risks to application development, and now many Ethereum-based applications have already presented significant loopholes in the use of smart contracts.
Scripting system is responsible for logic processing. UOC believes that logic processing should not involve digital assets ownership, which entails sole proprietorship.For example, the result of a lottery game has an effect on players’ digital assets ownership, but the process of the lottery has nothing to do with the digital assets ownership.
UOC is not saying that Ethereum’s idea of building smart contracts as a solution is wrong. What UOC is saying is that there can be a different approach to the problem.
UOC believes there are two kind of assets: exclusive and non-exclusive ones. Bitcoin deals with the former one perfectly but it fails to handle the non-exclusive ones.
UOC define the non-exclusive one as public resources that can be used by anyone.
For example, lands, water, minerals and public facilities are public resources. Instances and monsters in online games are public resources. Players can participate in the raid to obtain equipment, money or any other assets as reward.Game publishers offer public resources for a profit. The more the profit, the more they are incentivized to provide better service.
Based on Bitcoin, UOC brings in the concept of public resources. Without changing Bitcoin scripting system for transactions, UOC suggests an external plug-in solution which is referred to as Polymerized Smart Contract(PSC).
UOC emphasizesthat logic processing should not involve digital assets ownership, which entails sole proprietorship
PSC aims at describing a logic and returning a result.
PSC is secure. Because implementing PSC does not result in a change in the ownership of digital assets, there is no harm even when PSC is attacked or defamed. The possibly worst situation is that A does not transfer money to B, and B does not provide A with any service.
This situation is acceptable to UOC. Just as a bookkeeper may be selective about which transaction to be recorded, some transactions are neglected or even rejected maliciously.
PSC adopts the Self-Certified Storage, which?is in itself secure. Therefore, there is no point in attacking,?defaming or forging PSC.
PSC enables executable language to run on blockchain nodes as plugin. It supplements transaction processing with custom scripting functions. It does not describe the ownership of digital assets but returns the result?only.
Blockchain nodes provide PSC with CPU power for one or more applications. CPU power is an optional plug-in model for nodes.
To ensure the consistency, anti-attack, and anti-defame of the PSC results of all nodes, UOC extends a technology that is widely used in smaller areas.
This technology, which has no clear definition yet, has long been used skilfully and conventionally in an anonymous network, and it is a P2P encryption information transfer mode based on time axis.
For better understanding, UOC defines it as Self-Certified Storage(SCS),
according to its function.
SCS,a sophisticated information transfer mode, utilizes an asymmetric encryption method, can ensure that the parties involved in the message delivery do not have any ambiguity during the message delivery and that the data will not be falsified by anyone other than themselves.
For example, A is going to send a message to B. A encrypts the message with A’s private key, serving as a proof that A encrypted it and it is not forged. When B receives the message, B decrypts the message into its original form with A’s public key. To guarantee that only B has access to the original message, this message is also encrypted with B’s public key.
UOC put a timestamp and hash at the beginning and the end of the chain of SCS so as to ensure the data uniqueness and completeness?of the data. Even if A broadcasts forged messages, A will have to send another message to conceal the double spending problem caused by previous broadcasts. But what A will do is not allowed, for it has already left its digital fingerprint on the chain as a proof.
This system of transferring and storing messages based on encryption is referred to as Self-Certified Storage Chain(SCSC)?by UOC.
UOC adds service nodes that run PSC based on Bitcoin nodes, with the intention of providing different applications with plugin CPU power support.
Every node is able to selectively support different applications with CPU power, and service nodes operate PSC, collect users’ messages, pack messages after verifying and deliver final results.
On determining representation in majority decision making, UOC does not adopt the one-CPU-one-vote proof-of-work as Bitcoin does. Rather, UOC adopts the Proof-of-Game. Bookkeepers are selected according to the gaming results. The chain with a higher rank will grow the fastest and outpace any competing chains behind it.
UOC discovers a brand-new mathematic model, bringing the traditional mathematic model which is a solution to the mathematical problem of playing mental poker without a trusted third party with efficiency and universality. And we call it Proof-of-Game.
This is also a very interesting election system.
(1)All nodes have the right to sign up for an election. Everyone can join the election so as to prevent incentivization of money and power.
(2)No CPU power is required for mining. Because the consensual result is produced quickly, less time is required to generate a block.
(3)Nodes pay for election registration. This is a transaction. When the election ends, after the transaction fees are deducted, registration fees will be returned to nodes.
(4)Nodes can sign up for the election in 24 hours before the game starts. The result will be announced in 12 hours after election ends.?
The game-theory-based mathematic model is designed for solving the mental poker problem, i.e., there are three players in a poker game without trust in each other and a third party, and they can still play the game with fair shuffling and dealing in a trusted environment.
With the support of Proof-of-Game, UOC is able to involve everyone in the game and produce one block per 10 seconds, which is fast enough to maintain seamless gameplay.
UOC continues the legacy of Bitcoin’s pioneers. UOC enriches the description of the digital assets ownership by adding the description of public resources; uses Proof-of-Game to greatly increase the speed of generating blocks; adopts PSC, a programmable plugin for Bitcoin scripting transactions; and protects PSC against risks by utilizing SCS chain.
UOC is a fully decentralized ecosystem that supports serverless CPU power, seeing unlimited possibilities in blockchain-based online games.
?Satoshi Nakamoto《Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System》
?QQagent《Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System》Chinese Translation
?Ethereum《A Next-Generation?Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform》
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